Sages and Movements: An Incomplete Peter Kropotkin Bibliography

This article appeared in Anarchist Studies (volume 22, number 1) in the spring of 2014

The bibliography produced below is the result of research undertaken as part of my Kropotkin anthology project (Direct Struggle Against Capital: A Peter Kropotkin Anthology, AK Press, Spring 2014). While working on this project, it soon became clear that only a fraction of Kropotkin’s anarchist writings have been translated into English and that no comprehensive bibliography of his libertarian writings existed. Various accounts of his ideas and life include bibliographies in various states of completion as well as numerous references to articles and letters, yet there had been no attempt to collate this information and so existing lists of Kropotkin’s works were incomplete. The list on Anarchy Archives,[1] for example, does not include many of the works referenced in Miller’s Kropotkin.[2] Caroline Cahm’s bibliography is excellent for the period 1872 to 1886, as would be expected, but concentrates only on important works after that.[3] I set out to address this lack. The current bibliography is still incomplete, nevertheless it provides the most comprehensive listing of Kropotkin's work to-date. Hopefully, it will be of use to other researchers working on Kropotkin and his ideas and provide the basis for a complete bibliography in the future.

The research has raised issues about the relationship between influential thinkers and the wider movement and about the distorting effect that a lack of primary sources has on our understanding of both. Here, I seek to explore both issues before presenting an incomplete bibliography of Kropotkin’s libertarian articles, books, pamphlets and published letters.

The Importance of Primary Sources

Unlike Marxists, anarchists have never relied on state-resources for the production of definitive Collected Works – and where collections have been produced (Œuvres Bakunin, for example) they have not been published in English, which seems particularly insular to writers in other languages. As a result researchers often lack access to the primary sources required to produce a comprehensive account of, say, Proudhon’s and Bakunin’s ideas. In terms of movements, the challenges are even greater, not least because it involves a multitude of resources (newspapers, conference minutes and resultions, etc.) by a multitude of authors. To take just one example, James Guillaume’s four volume L’Internationale: Documents et Souvenirs (1864-1878) has never been translated into English, so ensuring English language activists and researchers understanding of the First International and its debates is, at best, incomplete or, at worst, inaccurate.[4]

The lack of, and so unfamiliarity with, primary sources has not treated anarchist thinkers well. This can be seen from Proudhon who has been subject to such inaccurate claims that many think he advocated ideas he explicitly denied. For example, in contrast to much of the secondary literature, he stressed in an open letter his opposition to individual property and argued that, in spite of his opposition to state socialism, 'it does not follow at all... that I want to see individual ownership and non-organisation of the instruments of labour endure for all eternity. I have never penned nor uttered any such thing: and have argued the opposite a hundred times over... I believe in an order wherein the instruments of labour will cease to be appropriated and instead become shared'.[5]

As became clear when creating this incomplete bibliography, Kropotkin also suffers from this since much, if not most, of his output is neither translated nor collated. So while George Woodcock should be praised for his 11-volume edition of Kropotkin’s Collected Works, the title is a misnomer. It makes available a significant amount of his output in English, but it not complete as it does not include his many articles for Freedom nor those in French and Russian. Yet these are important in order to fully grasp of Kropotkin’s ideas, as he noted they 'are more expressive of my anarchist ideas'.[6] The most easily available of his texts are those that are very general and theoretical, not those dealing with the concrete political and strategic issues facing the anarchist movement. This allows him to be cast as a visionary or as a theorist rather than as an anarchist militant, actively grappling with challenges facing the workers’ movement and anarchist strategies within and outwith it to produce social transformation.

Kropotkin mentions in passing anarchist advocacy of direct action, class struggle and revolutionary unionism in these general introductions to libertarian ideas, but he focuses on these practical matters in his articles in anarchist newspapers. As he acknowledged in one polemic over syndicalism in 1907, 'I now ask myself if it would not be useful to make a selection of these articles' on the labour movement 'and publish them in a volume'. Had he done so, the historical record would show that he had 'always believed that the working class movement — organised in each trade for the direct conflict with Capital (today in France it is called Syndicalism and ‘direct action’) constitutes true strength, and is capable of leading up to the Social Revolution and realising it'.[7]

Direct Struggle Against Capital aims to be, in part, that volume. By drawing together these articles as well as those relating to social revolution (and the problems it would face), it should go some way to ending the myth of Kropotkin as 'The Gentle Prince of Co-operation' or the impractical visionary who believed in a painless revolution which would instantly produce a free society. As the bibliography shows, the reality is that he was a committed practical revolutionary class warrior who had a clear vision of how to create a revolution (by anarchist participation in popular movements, particularly trade unionism) and how difficult this would be.

Against Sages, For Context

The re-assessment of Kropotkin's work raises another key question: why bother with Kropotkin? Anarchism is a social movement and some may argue that concentrating on a few bearded dead white-men does the history of anarchism a disservice. Kropotkin would have agreed, arguing that anarchism 'originated in everyday struggles' and all anarchist writers did was to 'work out a general expression' of anarchism’s 'principles, and the theoretical and scientific basis of its teachings'.[8]

The nature of the intellectual contribution Kropotkin describes is borne out by the two most significant anarchist thinkers before Kropotkin. Rather than being an isolated thinker, Proudhon developed his ideas in the context of the rise of the French workers’ movement and its demands for self-managed workplace associations to replace wage-labour as well as the 1848 revolution.[9] Bakunin contributed to anarchism by taking up and deepening ideas already expressed within the International Working Men’s Association (IWMA) by workers across Europe, namely the syndicalist idea of unions as the means of both fighting capitalism and replacing it.[10]

So Paul Avrich’s suggestion that syndicalist ideas had 'originated' in the 1860s and 1870s when 'the followers of Proudhon and Bakunin in the First International were proposing the formation of workers’ councils designed both as a weapon of class struggle against capitalists and as the structural basis of the future libertarian society'[11] is only partly correct. Workers did not wait for Bakunin but raised these ideas, before he joined the International, at the Brussels conference in 1868 and again, after he joined, at the Basle Congress the following year.[12] He ensured his influence by championing them. This is not to deny his importance in developing revolutionary anarchism, it is simply to recognise that he was part of a wider movement and influences flowed both ways.

Perhaps unsurprisingly the fixation on famous thinkers ('sages') flows from the work of a non-anarchist, Paul Eltzbacher (1868-1928). His 1900 book Anarchism presented a chapter on Godwin, Proudhon, Stirner, Bakunin, Kropotkin, Tucker and Tolstoy. This, by necessity, downplayed the anarchist movement and its links with the wider socialist and labour movements. Worse, it gave a distinctly false impression as two chapters covered thinkers (Godwin and Stirner) who had no impact on the development of anarchism until the 1890s.

Unfortunately, subsequent authors who were libertarians followed this model. George Woodcock’s Anarchism: A History of Libertarian Ideas and Movements reduced the number of 'sages' to six (by dropping Tucker) but redeemed the situation somewhat by covering the movement in various countries in its second half. Peter Marshall’s Demanding the Impossible: A History of Anarchism followed Woodcock in format (thinkers followed by movements) but expanded the number of 'sages' and included a women (Emma Goldman). The division of 'sage' and 'movement' still placed the focus on the former at the expense of the latter.

Yet the political and social context provided by social movements is vital to understand anarchism. While Kropotkin, particularly in his later works (notably the article on Anarchism for the Encyclopaedia Britannica) presented anarchism as something which has existed as long as hierarchical authority has, anarchism is better understood as being a specific socio-economic theory and movement which was born in the nineteenth century. Before 1840 no theory was called 'anarchism' nor was there any popular movement termed 'anarchist' by its members. This does not mean that anarchistic theories and movements did not exist but that they only became retrospectively proclaimed as anarchist once the anarchist movement discovered them – as with, for example, Stirner and Godwin in the 1890s.

That Eltzbacher included both because anarchists retroactively made the identification changes does not change the problems inclusion produces and regardless of the merit of the ideas of Godwin and Stirner, it would be anachronistic to discuss them or thinkers in ancient Greece when sketching anarchism. This was recognised by Kropotkin: 'Within these federations [of the IMWA] developed… what may be described as modern anarchism'.[13] It was in the IWMA that many of the strategies normally associated with anarchism first developed: 'a vast organisation of trade unions, which it was intended to spread all over the world, and which would have carried on, with international support, the direct struggle of Labour against Capital'.[14]

The 'sage' perspective forgets that Kropotkin was, initially, one militant amongst many (not signing his contributions to the anarchist press until the 1890s, two decades after joining the movement). He came to prominence for many reasons, some of them personal (an ex-aristocrat who escaped a Tsarist prison to go into exile; a brilliant writer; a gifted scientist) but mostly political (he was part of a wider movement whose ideas he helped shape and champion). This can be seen from the two key debates he took part in as a militant: on the benefits of (libertarian) communism and participation in the labour movement. Neither was invented by him: he simply championed ideas which had already been raised within the IWMA by other libertarians.

The 'sage' perspective assigns a determining influence to gifted individual rather than an interactive, mutual, influence between him/her and the movement. Its flaws can be seen when said 'sage' makes comments which are fundamentally inconsistent with their politics, such as Kropotkin’s support for the Allies in World War I which isolated him from other anarchists. If, in the 1880s, Kropotkin came to prominence because he helped push anarchists towards libertarian communism and involvement in the labour movement, it was because his work reflected, reinforced and enriched a trend in that direction within the movement. If in 1914 he was isolated, it was precisely because his position was at odds with the bulk of the movement and his personal attributes and ideas correspondingly had no impact.

The Unknown Kropotkin?

While it may be tempting to proclaim the arrival of an 'Unknown Kropotkin' in listing these articles, we must resist. A close reading of his general works shows that the Kropotkin of those articles, the one who consistently advocated an International based purely on labour unions committed to 'the direct struggle of Labour against Capital',[15] can be found there as well. That far too many commentators on his ideas seem happy to utilise secondary sources should not distract us from this fact.

Part of the problem rests in those who championed Kropotkin after his death. Those who proclaim themselves heir to a thinker inevitably shape how that person is viewed. Thus Benjamin Tucker’s work in translating and popularising Proudhon, while helpful, also resulted in his ideas becoming viewed through the prism of Tucker’s politics and so the significant differences between the two were obscured. For example, Proudhon’s call for 'industrial democracy' and the end of wage labour by co-operative production finds no echo in Tucker.[16]

In terms of Kropotkin, his revolutionary class struggle anarchism became less well known thanks to those in the post-war period who favoured reformism referencing him. He became identified almost exclusively with Mutual Aid, peaceful co-operation and encouraging libertarian tendencies within capitalism. Even informed libertarian socialists like Maurice Brinton accepted this interpretation of Kropotkin’s ideas.[17] At its most basic, this is a misreading of Mutual Aid (which is hardly silent on class conflict and points to unions as examples of mutual aid under capitalism) but unfortunately few seek out primary sources before pronouncing judgement.

The articles listed in the bibliography confirm Kropotkin’s long-standing support for syndicalist tactics and the 'great contest between labour and capital — which constitutes the very essence of modern history'.[18] They also point against claims by George Woodcock that the 1890s saw Kropotkin concluding it was now a case of anarchism arriving by evolution.[19] This reflects Woodcock’s re-evaluation of his own politics, his move away from the revolutionary anarchism he previously advocated and into an academic career, rather than an accurate account of the evolution of Kropotkin’s ideas. True, Kropotkin was concerned with anarchists applying their principles in the 'here and now' but primarily, although not exclusively, in trade unions and other popular movements.[20]

Any change in Kropotkin’s activity does not reflect a change in his politics but is better explained by factors Woodcock himself notes: age (Kropotkin was in his fifties and sixties); ill-health; research for his books and articles; and the need to earn a living.[21] Moreover, as any libertarian activist knows, contributions to the movement’s press reflect what the writer thinks it needs. Kropotkin would have little need to reiterate previous arguments and ideas – whether this was on social revolution (he revised articles for The Conquest of Bread in the early 1890s) or anarchist involvement in the labour movement (the rise of syndicalism showed that this argument had been won within libertarian circles).[22]

He did write on the labour movement, for example producing a series of articles in the early 1900s on socialism for Freedom which argued against parliamentarianism and for union direct action which were subsequently reprinted as the pamphlets Socialism and Politics and The Coming Revival of Socialism. Workers had to maintain their 'trade organisations in full mental and material readiness for war… it is only by the constant menace of a declaration of war, and by real war… that the workers have won any victories; while the tactics of the politicians have always been to weaken the anti-capitalist labour organisations'.[23] He argued that 'although a general strike is a good method of struggle, it does not free the people that use it from the necessity of an armed struggle against the dominating order'[24] and that French syndicalists 'considerably attenuated the resistance that the Social Revolution will probably meet with on its way'.[25] He stressed the necessity of popular uprisings in the run up to social revolution.[26]

These writings are not consistent with Woodcock’s interpretation. While Kropotkin may have been less optimistic about the prospects for revolution than he had been in the 1880s, the revolutionary class struggle orientation he had expressed since joining the IWMA in the early 1870s remained.[27] This is reflected by the works listed in the bibliography.

The consistency of Kropotkin's politics raises an interesting question about 'propaganda by the deed'. The term 'propaganda by the deed' was first used in anarchist circles in its modern form by Paul Brousse in 1877,[28] its verbal support in the movement peaked in the early 1880s and its most famous period was in France from March 1892 to June 1894 when it became to mean individual acts of violence against representatives of capitalist society. Given this and Kropotkin’s advocacy of syndicalist tactics in 1880-1[29] and after the London Dockers’ strike of 1889, the common notion that anarchists turned to syndicalism in response to the failure of 'propaganda by the deed' seems untenable – particularly given the syndicalist ideas championed by Bakunin and other revolutionary anarchists in the First International.[30] This suggests that anarchist involvement in the labour movement was not a response to 'propaganda by the deed' at all, that these individual acts were completely unrelated to the rise of syndicalism which had already started. The study of Kropotkin’s articles during 1889-92 provides a fruitful line of research to see how far leading anarchists returned to advocating libertarian involvement in the labour movement before the French 'propaganda by the deed' period started.[31]

Conclusion

This bibliography, incomplete as it is, presents the material needed to challenge the all-too-common notion that Kropotkin was a dreamer, presenting enticing visions of a better world but with no idea how to reach it. In reality, he was keenly aware of the need to understand capitalism and the state, to participate in the oppositional movements and struggles within it and to learn the lessons of previous revolutions to ensure the success of the next one.

In terms of the interaction between 'sages' and the movement, we must remember that it is all the unknown working class anarchists (past, present and future) whose hopes and struggles make Kropotkin relevant. He, like Proudhon and Bakunin, popularised the ideas in the movement and lessons learned from previous revolts in his own, unique, fashion. Yet, without the movement, its struggles and debates, his impact would have been less aas would have been his contribution to anarchism.

The fixation on the 'sage' is to be expected in a hierarchical society in which the few rule the many. That the dominant (class) perspective is ubiquitous does not excuse those who should know better (libertarians!) from repeating it. So while reacting to the old school of anarchist history (as popularised by Woodcock), we must be wary of an over-reaction and of going too far in the other direction. We must remember our 'sages' while always placing them in the context their writings reflect – the wider movement. Neither can be completely understood without the other.

An Incomplete Peter Kropotkin Bibliography

This lists of all books, pamphlets and articles by Kropotkin discovered during the research for Direct Struggle Against Capital: A Peter Kropotkin Anthology (AK Press, Spring 2014). It is by no means complete, but is as comprehensive as possible. As well as original research, it draws upon the following books: Kropotkin and the Rise of Revolutionary Anarchism, 1872-1886 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989) by Caroline Cahm; Evolution & Revolution (Sydney: Jura Books, 1996) by Graham Purchase; Kropotkin by Martin A. Miller (Chicago/London: University of Chicago Press, 1976); A Short History of Anarchism (London: Freedom Press, 1996) and Bibliographie de l’Anarchie (Brussels/Paris: Bibliothèque des Temps Nouveaux, 1897), both by Max Nettlau; Kropotkin: The Politics of Community (New York: Humanity Books, 2004) by Brian Morris; and Paul Avrich’s 'Kropotkin in America' in Anarchist Portraits (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1988).

Books

This is a list of Kropotkin’s anarchist books. It does not attempt to list all the many translations of these works.

Year

Original

Notes

1885

Paroles d’un Révolté, ed. Elisée Reclus. Paris: Flammarion

Translation: Words of a Rebel, Montreal/New York: Black Rose Books, 1992

Extracts in Direct Struggle Against Capital

1887

In Russian and French Prisons, London: Ward and Downey.

Extracts in Direct Struggle Against Capital

1892

La Conquête du Pain. Paris: P. V. Stock et Cie.

Translation: The Conquest of Bread, Chapman and Hall Ltd: London, 1906. Serialised in Freedom.

Extracts in Direct Struggle Against Capital

1898

Fields, Factories and Workshops: or, Industry combined with agriculture and brain work with manual work, London: Hutchinson & Co.

 

1899

Memoirs of a Revolutionist, Boston: Houghton, Mifflin.

First serialised as 'Autobiography of a Revolutionist' in the Atlantic Monthly, September 1898 to September 1899.

1901

Sovremennaia nauka i anarkhizm, London: Russian Free Press.

Translation: Modern Science and Anarchism, Philadelphia: Social Science Club, 1903.

1902

Mutual Aid: A Factor of Evolution, London: Heinemann

Revised edition 1904.

 

Extracts in Direct Struggle Against Capital

1903

 

Modern Science and Anarchism, Philadelphia: Social Science Club

 

Serialised in Mother Earth, August to December 1906. Republished by Mother Earth Publishing: New York, 1908.

1905

Russian Literature, New York: A.A. Knopf

Reissued as Ideals and Realities in Russian Literature, New York: A.A. Knopf, 1915.

1906

Memoirs of a Revolutionist, 2nd Edition, London: Swan Sonnenschein & Co.

Extracts in Direct Struggle Against Capital.

1909

The Terror in Russia. London: Methuen

 

 

La Grande Révolution 1789-1793, Paris: P. V. Stock et Cie.

Translation: The Great French Revolution, 1789-1792, London: Heinemann.

Extracts in Direct Struggle Against Capital

1912

Modern Science and Anarchism, 2nd edition, London: Freedom Press.

Revised and expanded version. Published in December to mark Kropotkin’s 70th birthday. Extracts in Direct Struggle Against Capital

 

Fields, Factories and Workshops: or, Industry combined with agriculture and brain work with manual work, New York: T. Nelson and Sons

Revised edition.

Extracts in Direct Struggle Against Capital

1913

La Science Moderne et L’Anarchie, Paris: P. V. Stock et Cie.

Revised and Expanded French edition. Includes La Science Moderne et L’Anarchie, Communisme et Anarchie, L’État: son rôle historique, L’État Moderne and Herbert Spencer: sa Philosophie.

 

Revised edition of The Conquest of Bread, London: Chapman and Hall Ltd.

 

1921

Etika, Petrograd-Moscow: Golos Truda

Translation: Ethics: Origin and Development. London: George G. Harrap & Co., Ltd.. 1924.

Extracts in Direct Struggle Against Capital

1974

Fields, Factories and Workshops Tomorrow, edited, introduced and with additional material by Colin Ward, London, Allen & Unwin

Abridged version of Fields, Factories and Workshops. Reprinted by Freedom Press in 1986

1988

Act For Yourselves: articles from Freedom 1886-1907, edited by Nicolas Walter & Heiner Becker, London: Freedom Press

Extracts in Direct Struggle Against Capital

Pamphlets

This is a list of Kropotkin’s most significant pamphlets issued during his lifetime. It does not attempt to list all the many translations of these works.

Year

Original

Notes

1873

Pugachev ili bunt 1773 goda, Geneva.

 

1879

Le Procès de Solovieff (La Vie d’un Socialiste Russe), Geneva: Imprimerie Jurassienne

 

 

Idée anarchiste au point de vue de sa réalisation pratique, Geneva: Imprimerie Jurassienne

Translation: 'The Anarchist Idea from the Point Of View of its Practical Realisation', Freedom, 25th February, 1967.

Included in Direct Struggle Against Capital

1881

Aux Jeunes Gens, Geneva: Le Révolté

Translation: Appeal to the Young, London: The Modern Press, 1885. Included in Revolutionary Pamphlets.

 

L’Espirit de Révolté, Geneva: Le Révolté

An edited version is included in Revolutionary Pamphlets.

 

La Vérité sur les Exécutions en Russie, suivie d’une Esquisse biographique sur Sophie Perovskaia, Geneva: Imprimerie Jurassienne

 

1882

La Guerre, Geneva: Le Révolté.

From Words of a Rebel. Translation: War!, London: International Publishing Co., 1886.

1886

Law and Authority, London: Freedom Press

Translation of 'La Loi Et l’Authorité', Le Révolté, May 31-August 19, 1882.

Included in Revolutionary Pamphlets

1887

L’Anarchie dans l’Evolution Socialiste, Paris: Le Révolté.

Translation: The Place of Anarchism in Socialistic Evolution: Address delivered in Paris, London: William Reeves, 1887.

Included in Direct Struggle Against Capital

1889

La Salariat, Paris: Le Révolté.

Translation: The Wages System, Freedom Pamphlets No. 1, London: Freedom Press.

Included in Direct Struggle Against Capital

 

Les Prisons, Paris: Le Révolté.

Revised for In Russian and French Prisons.

1891

The Commune of Paris, Freedom Pamphlets No. 2, London: Freedom Press

From Words of a Rebel. Included in Selected Writings on Anarchism and Revolution.

 

Anarchist Communism: Its Basis and Principles, Freedom Pamphlets No. 4, London

Included in Revolutionary Pamphlets.

 

La morale anarchiste, Paris

Translation: Anarchist Morality, Freedom Pamphlets No. 6, London: Freedom Press, 1892. Included in Revolutionary Pamphlets.[32]

1892

Revolutionary Studies, London: Office of the 'Commonwealth'

 

 

Revolutionary Government, London: Office of the 'Commonwealth'

Reprinted in 1923 by Freedom press, London. Included in Revolutionary Pamphlets. A different translation is included in No Gods, No Masters and in Direct Struggle Against Capital

 

'L’agriculture' Paris: Au bureau de La Révolte

 

1893

Un Siècle d’attente, 1789-1889, Paris: Bureau de La Révolte

Revision of '1789-1889', La Révolte, January 13 to March 24, 1889

 

'L’agriculture', Paris: Au bureau de La Révolte

Translation: Agriculture, London: Liberty Press, 1896. Chapter of The Conquest of Bread

1894

Les Temps Nouveaux (conference faite à Londres), Paris: Au bureau de La Révolte

Originally published as 'Une conférence sur l’anarchie', La Révolte, March 18 to September 2

1895

Expropriation, Freedom Pamphlets No. 7, London

Included in Selected Writings on Anarchism and Revolution.

Extracts in Direct Struggle Against Capital

 

An Appeal to the Young, London: W. Reeves

 

1896

L’anarchie: sa philosophie, son ideal, Paris: En vente a la Libr. sociale

Translation: Anarchism: Its Philosophy and Ideal, Freedom Pamphlets No. 10, London: Freedom Press, 1897. Serialised in Freedom. Included in Revolutionary Pamphlets.

 

L’Inévitable anarchie, Bruxelles: Bibliothèque des Temps nouveaux

 

1897

La Grande Grève des Docks (with John Burns), Paris: Bibliothèque des Temps nouveaux

 

1898

The State: Its Historic Role, Freedom Pamphlets No. 11, London: Freedom Press

'The State: Its Historic Role', Freedom, May 1897 to June 1898. Included in Selected Writings on Anarchism and Revolution.

1901

L’Organisation de la Vindicte appelée Justice, Paris: Temps Nouveax

Translation: Organised Vengeance called ‘Justice’, Freedom Library, London

1901

The Development of Trade Unionism. Free Commune pamphlets no. 2. Leeds.

'The Development of Trades Unionism', Freedom, March, 1898.

Included in Direct Struggle Against Capital

1902

Zapiski revolutsionera, London

 

1903

Socialism and Politics, Freedom Pamphlets No. 14, London

'Politics and Socialism', Freedom, February-May, 1903.

Included in Direct Struggle Against Capital

 

Communisme et anarchie, Publications des Temps Nouveaux No. 27, Paris

 

1904

The Coming Revival of Socialism, Freedom Pamphlets No. 15, London

'The Coming Revival of Socialism', Freedom, August-November 1903 and February-March 1904

1905

Russkaia revoliutsiia, Geneva

 

 

Buntovskii duhk, Geneva

 

 

Der Anarchismus in Russland, Berlin

 

1906

L’Etat: son rôle historique, Paris: Publications des 'Temps Nouveaux'

 

 

Kommunizm i anarkhiia, St. Petersburg

 

1907

Russkaia revoliutsiia i anarkhizm, edited by P. A. Kropotkin. London

A series of articles by Russian Anarchists on the 1905 Russian Revolution. It includes 'Zakliucheniia sezda – Doklady', 'Revoliutsiia politicheskaia i konomicheskaia' and 'Nashe otnoshenie k krestianskim i rabochim soiuzam' by Kropotkin.

Included in Direct Struggle Against Capital

 

Parizhskaya Kommuna

Articles on the Paris Commune written for Listki 'Khleb i Volya'

1912

La Guerre, Publications des Temps Nouveaux, No. 59, Paris

Extract from La Science Moderne et l'Anarchie

1913

L’Idée révolutionnaire dans la Révolution, Publications des Temps Nouveaux, No. 64, Paris

A reprint of the first half of Etude sur La Révolution

 

La révolution sera-t-elle collectiviste?, Publications des Temps Nouveaux No. 66, Paris

 

 

Le Principe Anarchiste, Publications des Temps Nouveaux, No. 67, Paris

Included in Direct Struggle Against Capital

1914

L’Action anarchiste dans la révolution, Publications des Temps Nouveaux, No. 72, Paris

A reprint of the second half of Etude sur La Révolution.

Included in Direct Struggle Against Capital

 

Wars and Capitalism, Freedom Pamphlets, London

'Modern Wars and Capitalism', Freedom, May to August.

1921

Spravedlivost’ i nravstvennost, Petersberg-Moscow: Golos Truda

Justice and Morality. Originally a lecture given to the South Place Ethical Society in London during the Autumn of 1893

1969

The State: Its Historic Role, London: Freedom Press

New Translation.

Extracts in Direct Struggle Against Capital

1987

Anarchism and Anarchist-Communism, London: Freedom Press

Combination of the 'Anarchism' from The Encyclopaedia Britannica and Anarchist Communism: Its Basis and Principles. Introduction by Colin Ward.

 

The State: Its Historic Role, London: Freedom Press

Revised version of the 1969 translation. Introduction by Vernon Richards.

Kropotkin’s Collected Works (Black Rose)

George Woodcock edited Kropotkin’s Collected Works shortly before his death in 1995. Its 11 volumes include all his major writings as well as numerous important essays and articles. This collection is by no means complete, missing out the articles collated in Act for Yourselves, for example, not to mention numerous articles in anarchist papers in Britain, France and Russia.

Volume 1: Memoirs of a Revolutionist (1989)

Volume 2: Great French Revolution (1989)

Volume 3: Mutual Aid: A Factor in Evolution (1989)

Volume 4: The Conquest of Bread (1990)

Volume 5: Russian Literature: Ideas and Reality (1991)

Volume 6: In Russian and French Prisons (1991)

Volume 7: Words of a Rebel (1992)

Volume 8: Ethics: Origin and Development (1992)

Volume 9: Fields, Factories and Workshops[33] (1996)

Volume 10: Fugitive Writings[34] (1993)

Volume 11: Evolution and Environment[35] (1995)

Anthologies

This lists all anthologies that contain only works by Kropotkin. All decent anthologies of anarchism contain extracts by Kropotkin but space precludes listing these as well.

Year

Original

Notes

1927

Kropotkin’s Revolutionary Pamphlets[36], edited and introduced by N. Baldwin, New York: Vanguard Press.

Reprinted as Kropotkin’s Revolutionary Pamphlets, New York, Dover, 1970.

1942

Kropotkin: Selections from his Writings, edited and introduced by Herbert Read, London: Freedom Press.

This contains short extracts from most of Kropotkin’s books arranged thematically in four sections: Autobiographical; Historical; Economic and Political; and Philosophical.

1970

Selected Writings on Anarchism and Revolution[37], edited and introduced by Martin A. Millar, Cambridge, Massachusetts, M.I.T. Press

 

1971

Fighting the Revolution II[38], London: Freedom Press

Reprinted in 1985.

1975

The Essential Kropotkin[39], edited by Emile Capouya and Keitha Tompkins, New York: Liveright

 

1995

The Conquest of Bread and Other Writings[40], introduced and edited by M. Shatz. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

 

1997

Small Communal Experiments and why they fail[41], edited by Graham Purchase, Jura Books: Petersham.

 

2002

Anarchism: A Collection of Revolutionary Writings, Dover Press

Renaming of Revolutionary Pamphlets, New York: Dover Press 1970

An incomplete listing of anarchist articles, letters and prefaces by Kropotkin

This is a comprehensive, but incomplete, listing of articles by Kropotkin along with letters, prefaces, introductions and postscripts added to new editions of his works. It does not include all the articles in concluded in Conquest of Bread nor the many articles produced for the Russian papers Khleb i Volya (1903-5, 1909) and Listki 'Khleb i Volya' (1906-7).[42] His extensive scientific writings, including the non-anarchist entries for the Encyclopaedia Britannica, are not listed.

Year

Original

Notes

1873

'Dolzhnyi-li my zaniat’sia rassmotreniem ideala budushchego stroia?' Published originally in abridged form in Byloe, no. 17 (1921), and in complete form for the first time in B. S. Itenberg, ed., Revoliutsionnoe narodnichestvo. Moscow: Nauka, 1964. 1:55-118.

Translation: 'Must We Occupy Ourselves with an Examination of the Ideal of a Future System' in Selected Writings on Anarchism and Revolution

1876

'A propos de la question d’Orient', Bulletin de la Fédération Jurassienne de l’Association Internationale des Travailleurs, September 24.

 

1877

'Nouvelles de l’extérieur: Russie', Bulletin de la Fédération Jurassienne de l’Association Internationale des Travailleurs, April 15, May 6, 13, June 10, September 2, December 2, 23.

 

 

'Les Trades Unions', Bulletin de la Fédération Jurassienne de l’Association Internationale des Travailleurs, May 27; June 17, 24; July 1

 

 

[Untitled article on 8-hour day in USA], Bulletin de la Fédération Jurassienne de l’Association Internationale des Travailleurs, June 10.

 

 

[Untitled article on war in the Orient], Bulletin de la Fédération Jurassienne de l’Association Internationale des Travailleurs, June 17, 24.

 

 

[Untitled article on socialist deviationism], Bulletin de la Fédération Jurassienne de l’Association Internationale des Travailleurs, July 22, 29.

 

 

'Affaires d’Amérique', Bulletin de la Fédération Jurassienne de l’Association Internationale des

Travailleurs, August 5.

 

 

'Bulletin international' [On Pittsburgh strikes], L’Avant-Garde.

 

 

'Le Vorwärts et le peuple russse', Bulletin de la Fédération Jurassienne de l’Association Internationale des Travailleurs, August 12.

 

1879

'La Situation', Le Révolté, March 3.

Included in Words of a Rebel

 

'La Décomposition des Etats', Le Révolté, April 5

Included in Words of a Rebel

 

Speech at Jura Federation Conference, Le Révolté, October 18

As part of a report on the Conference. Kropotkin used the pseudonym of Levashóv. Translated in 'Kropotkin: Two Early Speeches', Freedom (Vol. 28, No. 19), 24th June 1967.

 

'Idée anarchiste au point de vue de sa réalisation pratique.' Le Révolté, November 1

Translation: 'The Anarchist Idea from the Point Of View of its Practical Realisation', Freedom, 25th February, 1967.[43]

Included in Direct Struggle Against Capital

 

Letter, La Plebe, November 16

 

1880

'L’Année 1879', Le Révolté, January 10

 

 

'La Prochaine Revolution', Le Révolté, February 7

Included in Words of a Rebel

 

'Le Gouvernement représentatif', Le Révolté, March 6.

Translation: 'Representative Government', The Commonweal, May 7 to July 9, 1892. Included in Words of a Rebel.

Extracts in Direct Struggle Against Capital

 

'La Commune de Paris.' Le Révolté, March 20.

Merged with articles from 1881 and 1882 for the chapter 'The Paris Commune' in Words of a Rebel.[44]

Included in Direct Struggle Against Capital

 

'Les Pendaisons en Russie', Le Révolté, March 27

 

 

'La Commune', Le Révolté, May 1 to 15

Included in Words of a Rebel.[45]

Included in Direct Struggle Against Capital

 

'Aux Jeunes Gens', Le Révolté, June 26 to August 21.

Included in Words of a Rebel.[46]

 

'La Question agraire', Le Révolté, September 18 to February 19, 1881

Included in Words of a Rebel

 

Speech at Jura Federation Conference, Le Révolté, October 17

As part of a report on the Conference. Translation: 'Kropotkin: Two Early Speeches', Freedom, 24th of June 1967.

 

'Les Élections', Le Révolté, December 25.

 

1881

'L’Année 1880', Le Révolté, January 8.

 

 

'Les Ennemis du peuple', Le Révolté, February 5.

Included in Direct Struggle Against Capital

 

'La Nécessite de la Révolution', Le Révolté, March 5

Included in Words of a Rebel.

 

'La Commune de Paris', Le Révolté, March 18.

Merged with articles from 1880 and 1882 for the chapter 'The Paris Commune' in Words of a Rebel.

Included in Direct Struggle Against Capital

 

'La Situation en Russie', Le Révolté, March 18.

 

 

'L’Espirit de Révolté', Le Révolté, May 14 to July 9

Translation: 'The Spirit of Revolt', Commonweal, March 19 to April 16, 1892. Included in Words of a Rebel.[47]

 

'Tous socialistes', Le Révolté, September 17.

Included in Words of a Rebel

 

'L’Ordre' Le Révolté October 1.

Included in Words of a Rebel

 

probably 'La Ligue des Trades Unions', Le Révolté October 1.

 

 

'The Revolutionary Party of Russia', The Newcastle Chronicle, October 12

Revised and expanded for Fortnightly Review 31 in 1882.

 

'Le Mouvement Ouvrier en Espagne', Le Révolté, November 12

Included in Direct Struggle Against Capital

 

'Les Minorités révolutionnaires', Le Révolté, November 26

Included in Words of a Rebel

 

'L’Organisation ouvrière', Le Révolté, December 10 and December 24

Included in Direct Struggle Against Capital

1882

'Russian Prisons', The Nineteenth Century, January

 

 

'Russian Administration', The Newcastle Chronicle, 18 January

 

 

'The Russian Peasantry', The Newcastle Chronicle, 7 February 1882

 

 

'Russian Liberals on the Situation', The Newcastle Chronicle, 7 February

 

 

'The London Jews’ Meeting: Prince Kropotkin’s Speech' , The Newcastle Chronicle, 9 February

 

 

'Les Droits politiques', Le Révolté, February 18

Included in Words of a Rebel

 

'Théorie et pratique', Le Révolté, March 4

Included in Words of a Rebel

 

'L’Anniversaire du 18 mars', Le Révolté, April 1

Merged with articles from 1880 and 1881 for the chapter 'The Paris Commune' in Words of a Rebel.

Included in Direct Struggle Against Capital

 

'Charles Darwin', Le Révolté, April 29

 

 

'La Loi de l’autorité', Le Révolté, May 31 to August 19

Included in Words of a Rebel.[48]

 

Letter to the Jura Federation, Le Révolté, July 8

 

 

'Le Gouvernement pendant la révolution', Le Révolté, September 9, September 16 and October 14

Translation: 'Revolutionary Government', The Commonweal, December 19 1891 to February 6, 1892. Included in Words of a Rebel as 'Revolutionary Government.'[49]

Included in Direct Struggle Against Capital

 

'Les Préludes de la révolution', Le Révolté, October 28.

 

 

'L’Expropriation', Le Révolté, November 25 and December 23

Included in Words of a Rebel. A revised and expanded brochure edition appeared in English in 1886.

 

'La Situation en France', Le Révolté, December 9

 

 

'The Russian Revolutionary Party', Fortnightly Review.

Included in Selected Writings on Anarchism and Revolution

1883

'Déclaration des anarchistes accusés devant le tribunal correctional de Lyon', Le Révolté, January 20 to February 3[50]

Translation: 'Kropotkin – The Lyon Trial', Freedom (Vol. 28, No. 13), 29th April, 1967.

Included in Direct Struggle Against Capital

 

'Russian Prisons', The Nineteenth Century, January

 

 

'The Fortress Prison of St Petersburg', The Nineteenth Century, June

 

 

'Outcast Russia', The Nineteenth Century, December

 

1884

'Exile in Siberia', The Nineteenth Century, March

 

 

Letter from prison, Le Matin, July 16

 

1885

'Finland: a Rising Nationality', The Nineteenth Century, March

 

 

'The Coming War', The Nineteenth Century, May

 

 

'What Geography Ought to Be', The Nineteenth Century, December

 

1886

'L’Expropriation', Le Révolté, February 14

Included in The Conquest of Bread ('Expropriation')

 

'In French Prisons', The Nineteenth Century, March

 

 

'L’Anarchie dans L’Evolution socialiste', Le Révolté, March 28 to May 9, 1886

Translation: The Place of Anarchism in Socialistic Evolution: Address delivered in Paris, London: William Reeves, 1887

Included in Direct Struggle Against Capital

 

'Comment on s’enrichit', Le Révolté, May 29 to July 3

Included in The Conquest of Bread ('Expropriation')

 

'La Pratique de l’expropriation', Le Révolté, July 10

 

 

'Le Logement', Le Révolté, July 24 to August 7

Included in The Conquest of Bread.

 

'Les Prisons', Le Révolté, August 4 to August 21

Issued as a pamphlet and then revised for In Russian and French Prisons.

 

'La Guerre sociale', Le Révolté, September 11

 

 

'Du pain, faut du pain!', Le Révolté, September 11

Included in The Conquest of Bread.

 

'Les Ateliers nationaux', Le Révolté, September 25

 

 

'Les Denrées', Le Révolté, October 2 to November 27

Included in The Conquest of Bread.

 

'The Coming Revolution', Freedom, October

Included in Act for Yourselves

 

'What Revolution Means', Freedom, November

Included in Act for Yourselves.

Included in Direct Struggle Against Capital

 

'Le Vétement', Le Révolté, December 25

Included in The Conquest of Bread.

 

'What Must We Do?', Freedom, December

Included in Act for Yourselves

1887

'Que Faire', La Révolte, January 8

 

 

'Les Besoins scientifiques', Le Révolté, January 29 to February 12

 

 

'Act for Yourselves', Freedom, January

Included in Act for Yourselves

Included in Direct Struggle Against Capital

 

'Parliamentary Rule', Freedom, February

Included in Act for Yourselves

 

'The Scientific Basis of Anarchy', The Nineteenth Century, February

Revised as the first section of the pamphlet Anarchist Communism: Its Basis and Principles

 

'La Libre Entente', Le Révolté, April 2 to July 23

Included in The Conquest of Bread.

 

'The Paris Commune', Freedom, April

 

 

'Local Action', Freedom, May

Included in Act for Yourselves

Included in Direct Struggle Against Capital

 

'The End Set Before Us', Freedom, June

Included in Act for Yourselves

 

'Productione et Consummation', Le Révolté, July 2

Included in The Conquest of Bread.

 

'Practical Question', Freedom, July

Included in Act for Yourselves

 

'The Coming Anarchy', The Nineteenth Century, August

Revised as the second section of the pamphlet Anarchist Communism: Its Basis and Principles.

 

'The First Work of the Revolution', Freedom, August

Included in Act for Yourselves

 

'The Necessity of Communism', Freedom, September

Included in Act for Yourselves

 

'Rocks Ahead', Freedom, December

Included in Act for Yourselves

 

'Influence morale des prisons sur les prisonniers', La Révolte, December 24 to June 16 1888

Included in Revolutionary Pamphlets.

1888

'Communist-Anarchism', Freedom, April

Included in Act for Yourselves

 

'The Breakdown of Our Industrial System', Nineteenth Century, April

Included in Fields, Factories and Workshops

 

'A General View', Freedom, May

Included in Act for Yourselves

 

'Are We Good Enough?', Freedom, June

Included in Act for Yourselves

Included in Direct Struggle Against Capital

 

'The Coming Reign of Plenty', The Nineteenth Century, June

Included in Fields, Factories and Workshops

 

'Communism and the Wage System', Freedom, August and September

Included in Act for Yourselves

 

'Le Salariat', La Révolte, August 26 to September 30

Included in The Conquest of Bread.

Extracts in Direct Struggle Against Capital

 

'The Industrial Village of The Future', The Nineteenth Century, October

Included in Fields, Factories and Workshops

 

'Before the Storm', Freedom, December

 

1889

'1789-1889', La Révolte, January 13 to March 24

 

 

'La Division du Travail', La Révolte, April 21

Included in The Conquest of Bread.

Included in Direct Struggle Against Capital

 

'Past and Future', Freedom, April

 

 

'Le Commerce extérieur et la Misére à l’Intérieur', La Révolte, May 5 to June 15

Included in The Conquest of Bread (as the basis of the chapter 'The Decentralisation of Industry')

 

'The Great French Revolution and its Lesson', The Nineteenth Century, June

 

 

'Courage et Confiance', La Révolte, June 30

 

 

'Le centenaire de la révolution', La Révolte, June 30 to September 21

 

 

'Ce que c’est qu’une gréve', La Révolte, September 7

 

 

'Le Vingtiéme Siécle', La Révolte, November 30 to December 28

 

 

'L’Agriculture', La Révolte, December 12 to February 14, 1891

Included in The Conquest of Bread.

1890

'Le Travail agréable', La Révolte, February 1

Included in The Conquest of Bread.

 

'Brain Work and Manual Work,' The Nineteenth Century, March

Included in Fields, Factories and Workshops.[51]

 

'La morale anarchiste au point de vue de sa réalisation pratique', Le Révolté. March 1 to April 16

Translation: 'Anarchist Morality', Freedom, October 1891 to July 1892.

 

'The Use of the Strike', Freedom, April

Included in Direct Struggle Against Capital

 

'L’Action des masses et l’individu', La Révolte, May 24

 

 

'Nos richesses', La Révolte, July 26 to August 31

Included in The Conquest of Bread.

Included in Direct Struggle Against Capital

 

'L’Aisance pour tous', ', La Révolte, September 6 to September 20

Included in The Conquest of Bread.

 

'Le Mouvement ouvrier en Angleterre', La Révolte, September 13

 

 

'Les Gréves', La Révolte, September 27

Included in Direct Struggle Against Capital

 

'Mutual Aid Among Animals, 1', The Nineteenth Century, September

Included in Mutual Aid: A Factor in Evolution

 

'The Permanence of Society After the Revolution', Freedom, October

Included in Act for Yourselves

 

'Allez-vous en!', La Révolte, October 4

 

 

'Le Communisme anarchiste', La Révolte, October 11 to November 15

Included in The Conquest of Bread.

 

'Le Premier Mai 1891', La Révolte, October 18; October 25; November 1

Included in Direct Struggle Against Capital

 

'Mutual Aid Among Animals, 2', The Nineteenth Century, November

Included in Mutual Aid: A Factor in Evolution

 

'Encore la morale', La Révolté, December 5 to December 19

Included in La Morale Anarchiste

 

'L’Agriculture', La Révolte, December 12 to February 14 1891

Included in The Conquest of Bread.

1891

'Les Gréves anglaises', La Révolte, February 21 and March 18

 

 

'Le Capital de la Révolution', La Révolte, March 7

 

 

'Commune of Paris', Freedom, April

Included in Direct Struggle Against Capital

 

'L’Entente', La Révolte, April 11

 

 

'Mutual Aid Among Savages', The Nineteenth Century, April

Included in Mutual Aid: A Factor in Evolution

 

'Intensive Agriculture', The Forum, June

Included in Fields, Factories and Workshops

 

'Domestic Slavery', Freedom, July

An extract from The Conquest of Bread.

 

'Étude sur la Révolution', Le Révolté, July 10 to November 7, 1891

Translation: 'Revolutionary Studies.' Commonweal, 19 December 1891 to 6 February 1892. Also published as a pamphlet.

 

'La Mort de la nouvelle Internationale', La Révolte October 17

See also: 'La Mort de la nouvelle Internationale', Journal de Bruxelles, January 16, 1893.

Included in Direct Struggle Against Capital

 

'Peter Kropotkin on the 4th Anniversary of the Chicago Martyrs', Freedom, December

 

 

'Mutual Aid Among Savages', The Nineteenth Century, December

Included in Mutual Aid: A Factor in Evolution

1892

Predislovie k rabote Mikhaila Bakunina Parizhskaia kommuna i poniatie o gosudarstvennosti, Geneva: Anarkhicheskaya Biblioteka.

Preface, Michael Bakunin’s The Paris Commune and the Idea of the State (Geneva, Anarchist Library)

Included in Direct Struggle Against Capital

 

'Mutual Aid Among Barbarians', The Nineteenth Century, January

Included in Mutual Aid: A Factor in Evolution

 

'Affaire de Chambles', La Révolte, January 16

 

 

'Le Terrorisme', La Révolte, April 23

 

 

'Question de Terrorisme', La Révolte, May 24

 

 

'Explication', La Révolte, June 18

 

 

'L’Utopie Gouvérnementale', Le Révolté, November 11 to January 21 1893

 

 

'Commemoration of the Chicago Martyrs', Freedom, December

Included in Direct Struggle Against Capital

1893

Letter, Journal de Bruxelles, January 6

 

 

'Advice to Those About to Emigrate.' Freedom, March

 

 

'Une conférence sur l’anarchie', La Révolte, March 18 to September 2

Published as the pamphlet Les Temps Nouveaux.

 

Speech on Anarchism at Grafton Hall. Freedom, April

 

 

'On the Teaching of Physiography.' Geographic Journal, Vol. 2, No. 4, October

 

 

'Les Principes dans la révolution', La Révolte, December 17

 

1894

'Mutual Aid In the Mediæval City', The Nineteenth Century, August

Included in Mutual Aid: A Factor in Evolution

 

'Mutual Aid In the Mediæval City,' The Nineteenth Century, September

Included in Mutual Aid: A Factor in Evolution

1895

'The New Era', Solidarity (New York), January to April

Unfinished translation of the 1894 pamphlet Les Temps Nouveaux

 

'Proposed Communist Settlement: A New Colony for Tyneside or Wearside', The Newcastle Daily Chronicle, February 20

 

 

'L’effet des persecutions', Les Temps Nouveaux, 4 May

 

 

'Un temps d’arrêt', Les Temps Nouveaux, 25 May

 

 

'Les petits expedients', Les Temps Nouveaux, 15 June

 

 

'Les Expédients économiques', Les Temps Nouveaux, July 13

Included in Direct Struggle Against Capital

 

'Coopération et socialisme', Les Temps Nouveaux, July 27

 

 

'Le Congrés Ouvrier de 1896', Les Temps Nouveaux, August 3

Included in Direct Struggle Against Capital

 

'L’arrêt et l’issue', Les Temps Nouveaux, September 7

 

 

'The Present Condition in Russia.' The Nineteenth Century, September

 

 

'The New Era', The Rebel (Boston), September, October, December, January, March/April 1896

Unfinished translation of the 1894 pamphlet Les Temps Nouveaux

1896

'Mutual Aid Amongst Modern Men.' The Nineteenth Century, January

Included in Mutual Aid: A Factor in Evolution

 

'Mutual Aid Amongst Ourselves,' The Nineteenth Century, June

Included in Mutual Aid: A Factor in Evolution

 

Report of Speech, Freedom, August-September

 

 

'Les Congrès internationaux et le Congrès de Londres', Les Temps Nouveaux, 15 August to October 10

 

 

'L’Etat: son rôle historique', Les Temps Nouveaux, 19 December 1896 to 3 July 1897

Translation: 'The State: Its Historic Role', Freedom, May 1897 to June 1898

 

'In Memory of William Morris', Freedom, November

 

 

'Natural Selection and Mutual Aid', Humanity, December

 

 

'Co-operation: A reply to Herbert Spencer', Freedom, December 1896 and January 1897

 

1897

'What man can get from the land', Co-Operative Wholesale Society Annual for 1897, U.K.

 

 

'La Dernière Guerre', Les Temps Nouveaux, June 12

 

 

'La Tuerie de Hazelton', Les Temps Nouveaux, October 9

 

1898

'On the Present Condition of Russia,' The Outlook, January 8

 

 

Letter, Free Society, January 16

 

 

'Some of the Resources of Canada,' The Nineteenth Century, March

 

 

'The Development of Trades Unionism', Freedom, March

Included in Direct Struggle Against Capital

 

'Social Evolution', Solidarity, March to May

 

 

'1848-1871', Freedom, April

Included in Direct Struggle Against Capital

 

'Edward Bellamy,' Freedom, July

 

 

'Autobiography of a Revolutionist', Atlantic Monthly, September 1898 to September 1899.

Published in book form as Memoirs of a Revolutionist.

 

'The Geneva Tragedy', Freedom, October

 

 

'The Eleventh of November', Freedom, December

 

 

'Césarisme', Les Temps Nouveaux, December 3 1898 to January 21 1899

Translation: 'Caesarism', Freedom, April, May, June 1899

1899

'Les Panamistes du Patriotisme', Les Temps Nouveaux, January 28

 

 

'L’Alliance franco-russe', Les temps Nouveaux, 11 February, 18 February, 25 February

 

 

'Letter to Commune Celebration', Freedom, April

 

1900

'British Workers and the War', Freedom, March-April

 

 

'The Small Industries of Britain', The Nineteenth Century, August

Included in Fields, Factories and Workshops

 

'Communisme et anarchie.' Les Temps Nouveaux, supplément littéraire, no. 23

Translation: 'Communism and Anarchy', Freedom, July and August 1901.

Included in Direct Struggle Against Capital

1901

'Russia and the student riots', The Outlook, no 14, April

 

 

'Anarchism: Its Philosophy and Ideal', Free Society, March 17

Account of a speech.

 

'Anarchism: Its Philosophy and Ideal', Freedom, March-April

 

 

Interview, Free Society, May 5.

 

 

'The Present Crisis in Russia', The North American Review, Vol. 172, No. 534, May

 

 

'Letter on Repression of Workers in Russia', Freedom, July

 

 

'Integral Education', Freedom, September

Extract from Fields, Factories and Workshops

 

'La Réaction dans l’Internationale', Les Temps Nouveaux, September 14

 

 

'Kropotkin’s Letter', Freedom, September

Included in Direct Struggle Against Capital

 

'L’Organisation de la Vindicte Appelée Justice', Les Temps Nouveaux supplément littéraire, 26

Translation: 'Organised Vengeance Called ‘Justice’', Freedom, October

1902

'Russian Schools and the Holy Synod,' North American Review Vol 174, No 454, April

 

 

'One War Over - When is the Next?', Freedom, June

 

 

'Municipal Socialism', Freedom, December

Included in Act for Yourselves

1903

'Politics and Socialism', Freedom, February-May

Later issued as a pamphlet.

Included in Direct Struggle Against Capital

 

'The Czar’s Manifesto', Freedom, April

 

 

'Las Guerres obreras', La Huelga General, May 5

 

 

'L’Ideal anarchiste de la révolutions pécédentes', Les Temps Nouveaux, 11 July

 

 

'The Coming Revival of Socialism', Freedom, August-November 1903 and February-March 1904

Later issued as a pamphlet

 

'Les Anarchistes et la grande révolution', Les Temps Nouveaux, 3 October and 31 October

Translation: 'Anarchists in the French Revolution', Freedom, December 1903 and January 1904

1904

'Propaganda faktami', Khleb i Volya, no. 6, January

 

 

'Comment fut fondé Le Révolté', Les Temps Nouveaux, February 20

 

 

'Herbert Spencer', Freedom, February to September

 

 

'La Guerre russo-japonaise', Les Temps Nouveaux, March 5

 

 

Preface to Italian edition of Words of a Rebel, May

Included in Direct Struggle Against Capital

 

'The Ethical Need of the Present Day', The Nineteenth Century, August.

Revised as Chapters I and II of Ethics.

 

'Maxím Górk,' The Independent, Vol. 57, No. 2924, December 15

 

1905

'The Constitutional Agitation in Russia,' The Nineteenth Century and After, January

 

 

'The Morality of Nature', The Nineteenth Century, March

Revised as Chapter III of Ethics.

 

'Organizatsiia ili vol’noe soglasheniw', Khleb i Volya, No 18, June

 

 

'Bakunin', Freedom, June/July

Written for the Bakunin anniversary number of the Yiddish Workers’ Friend. Probably also 'Bakunin,' Khleb i Volya, July, nos.19-20, 1905

 

'Elisée Reclus', Les Temps Nouveaux, July 15

Translation: 'Elisée Reclus', Freedom, August, 1905 and 'Elisée Reclus', The Geographical Journal, September, 1905

 

'Le Syndicat Russe', [Probably Khleb i Volya], August-September

 

 

Letter, Le Temps, October 31

Also published in Les Temps Nouveaux, November 4, 1905

 

'The Revolution in Russia', Freedom, November/December

Included in Direct Struggle Against Capital

 

'Anti-Militarisme et Révolution', Les Temps Nouveaux, December 3 and November 4

 

 

'The Revolution in Russia', The Nineteenth Century and After, December

 

1906

Preface to the Russian edition of In Russian and French Prisons, February.

 

 

'The Revolution in Russia,' Mother Earth, July

 

 

Preface to the English translation of The Conquest of Bread, October

 

 

'Syndicalisme et parlementairisme', Les Temps Nouveaux, October 13

Included in Direct Struggle Against Capital

 

'Revoliutsiia politicheskaia i konomicheskaia', Listki 'Khleb i Volya', October 30

Reprinted in P. A. Kropotkion, Russkaia revoliutsiia i anarkhizm. London, 1907

Included in Direct Struggle Against Capital

 

'Nashe otnoshenie k kret’ianskim i rabochim soiuzam', Listki 'Khleb i Volya', November

Reprinted in P. A. Kropotkion, Russkaia revoliutsiia i anarkhizm. London, 1907

Included in Direct Struggle Against Capital

 

Letter, Hikari (Light), November 25

 

 

Preface to Second Edition of Memoirs of a Revolutionist, November

 

1907

Letter to The Voice of Labour, February 9

Included in Direct Struggle Against Capital

 

'Les Anarchistes et les Syndicates', Les Temps Nouveaux, May 25

Translation: 'Anarchists and Trade Unions', Freedom, June

Included in Direct Struggle Against Capital

 

'Assez d’Illusion', Les Temps Nouveaux, July

Translation: 'Enough of Illusions!', Freedom, August, 1907.[52]

Included in Direct Struggle Against Capital

 

Preface to Gogeliia, Kak i iz chego razvilsiia revoliutsionnyi sindikalizm, Izdanie gruppy anarkhistov-kommunistov, August.

 

 

'1886-1907: Glimpses into the Labour Movement in this Country', Freedom, October

Included in Act For Yourselves

Included in Direct Struggle Against Capital

1908

'The Causes of so-called Industrial Idleness', Craftsman, March

 

 

'The Reformed School', Freedom, June

Reprinted: 'The Reformed School,' Mother Earth, August.

Included in Direct Struggle Against Capital

 

'Une Révision qui s’impose', Les Temps Nouveaux, 1 August

 

 

'Sotsializm i sotsial-demokratiia', Burevestnik, No. 13, October

 

1909

'Present Condition of Russia', Freedom, July

 

 

Letter on State Terror in Russia, The Times[53], July 29th

.

 

'L’Anarchie et ses moyene de lutte l'internationale', Les Temps Nouveaux, August 21

 

 

'Oeuvre réactionnaire de la démocratie sociale,' Les Temps Nouveaux, September 4

 

 

[article on Jewish Nationalism], Freie Arbeiter Stimme, October 5

 

 

Preface, French Gardening, T. Smith, London: Utopia Press

 

1910

'Anarchism', The Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th edition

Included in Revolutionary Pamphlets

Included in Direct Struggle Against Capital

 

'The Theory of Evolution and Mutual Aid,' The Nineteenth Century and After, January

Included in Evolution and Environment.

 

'La Période de réaction depuis 1871', Les temps Nouveaux, January 8

 

 

'L’Extension des idées radical-socialistes', Les Temps Nouveaux, 5 February

 

 

'The English Elections', Freedom, April

 

 

'La Bourgeoisie et le socialisme parlementaire', Les Temps Nouveaux, 23 July

 

 

'The Direct Action of Environment on Plants,' The Nineteenth Century and After, July

Included in Evolution and Environment.

 

'Insurrection et révolution', Les Temps Nouveaux, August 6

Included in Direct Struggle Against Capital

 

'Tolstoi', Utro Rossii, November 21

 

 

'The Response of the Animals to Their Environment' Part 1, The Nineteenth Century and After, November

Included in Evolution and Environment.

 

'The Response of the Animals to Their Environment' Part 2, The Nineteenth Century and After, December

Included in Evolution and Environment.

1911

Preface to Syndicalism and the Co-operative Commonwealth by Emile Pataud and Emile Pouget

Included in Direct Struggle Against Capital

 

'The Present Condition of Russia', Mother Earth, August

 

1912

'The Inheritance of Acquired Characters: Theoretical Difficulties', The Nineteenth Century and After, March

Included in Evolution and Environment.

 

'Le Massacre russe', Les Temps Nouveaux, 18 May

Translation: 'An Appeal to the American and British Workmen,' Freedom and Mother Earth, June, 1912

 

'Le Dévelopment des idées anarchistes', Encyclopédie du mouvement syndicaliste, No. 5, May

 

 

'Anarchism and Syndicalism', Freedom, August and September

Included in Direct Struggle Against Capital

 

Preface to revised 1912 edition of Fields, Factories and Workshops, October

 

 

'Sterilisation of the Unfit', Freedom, October

Also appeared in Mother Earth, December 1912

1913

Letter, Freedom, January

 

 

Preface to revised 1913 edition of The Conquest of Bread, January

 

 

'A Greeting,' Mother Earth, January

 

 

'Modern Wars and Capitalism', Freedom, May to August.

Later issued as a pamphlet by Freedom Press in 1914. Republished as 'Wars and Capitalism,' Mother Earth, November 1914 to March 1915

 

'La Croisade la science de M. Bergson,' Les Temps Nouveaux, October 25

 

 

'Prisons: Universities of Crime', Mother Earth, October

Included in Direct Struggle Against Capital

 

'The Modern State', Freedom, November and December 1913, January to April 1914, June 1914 and September 1914

Series not finished. From 1913 edition of La Science Moderne et L’Anarchie

Extracts in Direct Struggle Against Capital

 

'The Coming War', The Nineteenth Century

 

1914

'A Few Thought about the Essence of Anarchism', Freedom, January.

Included in Direct Struggle Against Capital

 

'Letter to the Bakunin Centenary Celebration', Freedom, June

Included in Direct Struggle Against Capital

 

'Mutual Aid: An Important Factor in Evolution', Mother Earth, June

Included in Direct Struggle Against Capital

 

'Communist Kitchens', Freedom, September

 

 

'A Letter on the present war', Freedom, October.

Also appeared as 'Kropotkin on the Present War', Mother Earth, November 1914

 

'Inherited Variation in Plants,' The Nineteenth Century, October

Included in Evolution and Environment.

 

Letter, La Bataille Syndicaliste, November 6

 

 

'Anti-militarism: Was it Properly Understood?', Freedom, November

 

 

'Inherited Variation in Animals,' The Nineteenth Century, November

Included in Evolution and Environment.

 

Letter, Freedom, December

 

 

Preface to 1914 edition of Mutual Aid

 

1917

Letter, The Times, June 8

 

 

'Kropotkin’s Farewell Letter', Freedom, July

 

1918

'Peter Kropotkin’s Speech', delivered to the Moscow National Conference of 1917, The Birth of the Russian Democracy, Russian Information Bureau, New York: A.J. Sack

 

 

'O sovremennoi Anglii', Vestnick obshchestva sblizhniia s Angliei, February

 

1919

'Direct Action of Environment and Evolution', The Nineteenth Century, January

 

 

Letter, L’Humanité, October

Reprinted in Les Temps Nouveaux, March 1921. Translation: 'Letter to Brandes' in Selected Writings on Anarchism and Revolution

 

Postscript to the Russian translation of Words of a Rebel, December.

Translated in part in Revolutionary Pamphlets.

Included in Direct Struggle Against Capital

1920

'Message to the Workers of the Western World', Labour Leader, July 22

Reprinted as 'Kropotkin says, Stop the War!', Freedom, August 1920.[54]

Included in Direct Struggle Against Capital

1921

'Ideal v revoliutsii,' Byloe, no. 17.

 

1922

Introduction, J. Guillaume, Internatsional, Moscow-Petrograd

 

 

'Chto delat’?' Rabochii put’. Berlin: no. 5. (July)

Translation: 'Here is My Opinion', Freedom, January 1926 (originally published in Road to Freedom, 1925).[55]

1923

'Federation as a Means to Unity', speech delivered on January 7, 1918, to the Federalist League. 'Federatsiia-Kak put'k ob'edineniiu', Golos Minuvshago, 1

Translation: 'Peter Kropotkin on Man and Society', Centennial Expressions on Peter Kropotkin, S. Alexander, L.A., Calif., Rocker Pubs. Com., 1942.

1958

'An Unpublished Essay on Leo Tolstoy by Peter Kropotkin', D. Novak (ed.), Canadian Slavonic Papers / Revue Canadienne des Slavistes, Vol. 3

 

1969

'Two Unpublished Letters of Kropotkin on British Party Politics', J.O. Baylen (ed.), New Review, December

 

End Notes

[1] Available at: http://dwardmac.pitzer.edu/Anarchist_Archives/kropotkin/kropotkinbiblio....

[2] Martin A. Miller, Kropotkin (Chicago/London: University of Chicago Press, 1976)

[3] Kropotkin and the Rise of Revolutionary Anarchism, 1872-1886 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989).

[4] See, for example, the discussion on Proudhon’s influence in the collectivisation debates within the First International in 'Introduction', Property is Theft! A Pierre-Joseph Proudhon Anthology (Edinburgh/Oakland/Baltimore: AK Press, 2011), Iain McKay (ed.), 36-39

[5] 'Letter to Pierre Leroux', Property is Theft!, 499

[6] quoted in Nicholas Walter, The Anarchist Past and Other Essays (Nottingham: Five Leaves Publications, 2007), 112.

[7] 'Anarchists and Trade Unions', Freedom, June, 1907.

[8] 'Modern Science and Anarchism,' Environment and Evolution (Montreal/New York: Black Rose, 1995), 58, 57.

[9] K. Steven Vincent, Pierre-Joseph Proudhon and the Rise of French Republican Socialism (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1984).

[10] Rudolf Rocker, Anarcho-Syndicalism: Theory and Practice (Edinburgh/Oakland: AK Press, 2004), 46-7, 54.

[11] The Haymarket Tragedy (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1984), 73

[12] Revolution from 1789 to 1906 (New York: Harper Torchbooks, 1962), P.W. Postgate (ed.), 393-4.

[13] 'Anarchism,' Anarchism: A Collection of Revolutionary Writings (New York: Dover Press, 2002), Roger N. Baldwin (ed.), 294. The thesis of Black Flame is mostly correct and finds support in Kropotkin’s work: the modern anarchist movement emerged in the First International and syndicalism is an integral part of the revolutionary anarchist tradition. Its key flaw is, ironically given its desire to be true anarchism’s historical development, denying the term anarchist to Proudhon. (Lucien van der Walt and Michael Schmidt, Black Flame: The Revolutionary Class Politics of Anarchism and Syndicalism – Counter-Power volume 1 [Edinburgh/Oakland: AK Press, 2009]).

[14] Peter Kropotkin, The Coming Revival of Socialism (London: Freedom Press, 1904), 8.

[15] 'Kropotkin’s Letter [to French and British trade union delegates]', Freedom, September 1901.

[16] 'Introduction', Property is Theft!, 45-6

[17] 'The Russian Anarchists – And Kropotkin', For Workers’ Power (Edinburgh/Oakland: AK Press, 2004), 86-8

[18] quoted in Paul Avrich, The Haymarket Tragedy (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1984), 350.

[19] G. Woodcock and I. Avakumovic, The Anarchist Prince: a biographical study of Peter Kropotkin (London: Boardman, 1950), 244-6

[20] See, for example, 'Le Premier Mai 1891' (La Révolte, October 18; October 25; November 1); 'The Chicago Anniversary' (Freedom, December 1891); 'Commemoration of the Chicago Martyrs' (Freedom, December 1892).

[21] Let us not forget that many of his mainstream works like Mutual Aid and Fields, Factories and Workshops originally appeared as paid-for work

[22] Kropotkin’s articles on anarchist involvement in the trade union movement during the periods 1881-2 and 1889-1892 (and beyond!) show the contestability of claims that the rise of syndicalism saw a turn 'away from Kropotkin’s anarcho-communism' towards an 'emphasis on workplace and trade union struggle.' (Lewis H. Mates, 'The Syndicalist Challenge in the Durham Coalfield before 1914', 57-77, Libertarian Socialism: Politics in Black and Red [London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012], Alex Prichard, Ruth Kinna, Saku Pinta and David Berry (eds.), 61)

[23] Politics and Socialism (London: Freedom Group, 1903), 15.

[24] 'Zakliucheniia s’ezda,' Russkaia Revoliuciia i Anarkhizm: Doklady i Zakliucheniia 1906 g. (London: Kleb i Volia, 1907), P. A. Kropotkin, (ed.), 10 (Translation: Josephien van Kessel)

[25] Preface, Émile Pataud and Émile Pouget, How We Shall Bring about the Revolution: Syndicalism and the Cooperative Commonwealth (London: Pluto Press, 1990), xxxvi.

[26] 'Insurrection et révolution', Les Temps Nouveaux, 6 August 1910

[27] As he noted in 1902, he had 'always preached active participation in the workers’ movement, in the revolutionary workers’ movement.' ('Letter to Nettlau,' Selected Writings on Anarchism and Revolution [Cambridge: MIT Press, 1970], Martin A. Miller (ed.), 304).

[28] The term initially referred to revolts like the Paris Commune and the (failed) insurrections organised by the Italian section of the IWMA (for example, the April 1877 insurrection in province of Benevento).

[29] As Caroline Cahm persuasively argues, Kropotkin did not support 'propaganda by the deed' and coined 'the spirit of revolt' as an alternative. This is reflected in his writings on the labour movement in the early 1880s.

[30] See my 'Another View: Syndicalism, Anarchism and Marxism,' Anarchist Studies 20:1.

[31] Like Kropotkin, Errico Malatesta urged libertarian involvement in the labour movement and May First events in 1890-2 (Davide Turcato, 'Collective Action, Opacity, and the "Problem of Irrationality": Anarchism and the First of May, 1890-1892', Journal for the Study of Radicalism 5:1, Spring 2011)

[32] Mother Earth, November and December 1916, January, February and March 1917.

[33] This is the abridged version of the work edited by Colin Ward and entitled Fields, Factories and Workshops Tomorrow.

[34] This contains the following pamphlets: Must We Occupy Ourselves with an Examination of the Ideal of a Future System?; Anarchist Communism: Its Basis and Principles; Anarchism: Its Philosophy and Ideal; Anarchist Morality; and The State: Its Historic Role.

[35] Includes Modern Science and Anarchism and the articles: 'The Theory of Evolution and Mutual Aid,' The Nineteenth Century and After, January, 1910; 'The Direct Action of Environment on Plants,' The Nineteenth Century and After, July, 1910; 'The Response of the Animals to Their Environment' Part 1, The Nineteenth Century and After, November, 1910; 'The Response of the Animals to Their Environment' Part 2, The Nineteenth Century and After, December, 1910; 'The Inheritance of Acquired Characters: Theoretical Difficulties', The Nineteenth Century and After, March, 1912; 'Inherited Variation in Plants,' The Nineteenth Century, October, 1914; 'Inherited Variation in Animals,' The Nineteenth Century, November, 1914

[36] This includes: The Spirit of Revolt; Anarchist Communism: Its Basis and Principles; Anarchist Morality; Anarchism: Its Philosophy and Ideal; Modern Science and Anarchism; Law and Authority; Prisons and their Moral Influence on Prisoners; Revolutionary Government, The Russian Revolution and the Soviet Government (being: 'Letter to the Workers of Western Europe' and 'What to Do?'); An Appeal to the Young; and 'Anarchism' (from Encyclopaedia Britannica). Many of these pamphlets are abridged, although this is usually not indicated in the text. While the editor states that all bar four of Kropotkin’s pamphlets published in English are included, it does not include 'Revolutionary Studies' (1892), 'The Development of Trades Unionism' (1901), 'Politics and Socialism' (1903) and 'The Coming Revival of Socialism.' (1904)

[37] Includes 'Must We Occupy Ourselves with an Examination of the Ideal of a Future System'; 'The Commune of Paris'; 'The Russian Revolutionary Party'; 'Expropriation'; 'The State: Its Historic Role'; 'The Revolution in Russia'; 'Letter to Nettlau'; 'Letter to Steffen'; 'Letter to Brandes'; 'Conversation with Lenin'; and 'Two Letters to Lenin'

[38] Includes 'Politics and Socialism' as well as 'On Order', 'The Situation' and a revised translation of 'The Commune of Paris' from Words of a Rebel and extracts from 'Must We Occupy Ourselves with an Examination of the Ideal of a Future System.'

[39] This includes the pamphlets: The Spirit of Revolt; An Appeal to the Young; Law and Authority; Prisons and their Moral Influence on Prisoners; Modern Science and Anarchism (abridged); The Wage System; and 'Anarchism' (from Encyclopaedia Britannica). It also has selections from the books: Memoirs of a Revolutionist; Mutual Aid; The Great French Revolution; The Conquest of Bread; and Fields, Factories and Workshops.

[40] The 'other writings' are: 'Western Europe' (newly translated from the Russian edition of Memoirs of a Revolutionist), 'Anarchism' (from The Encyclopaedia Britannica), 'Message to the Workers of the Western World', two Letters to Lenin and 'What is to be done?'

[41] Contains 'Communism and Anarchy' (Freedom, July and August 1901), 'Proposed Communist Settlement: A New Colony for Tyneside or Wearside' (The Newcastle Daily Chronicle, 20 February, 1895) and 'Advice to Those About to Emigrate' (Freedom, March 1893)

[42] Bread and Freedom and Leaflets from 'Bread and Freedom' (respectively). Kropotkin’s articles are listed by M. Korn, 'P. A. Kropotkin i russkoe revoliutsionnoe dvizhenie' in G.P. Maksimov (ed.), P. A. Kropotkin i ego uchenie, Chicago: Federatsiia Russkikh Anar-Komm, 1931

[43] Included in a different translation in No Gods, No Masters.

[44] In Mother Earth, May 1912.

[45] Included in a different translation in No Gods, No Masters.

[46] Included in Revolutionary Pamphlets.

[47] An edited version is included in Revolutionary Pamphlets.

[48] Included in Revolutionary Pamphlets.

[49] Included in Revolutionary Pamphlets and No Gods, No Masters.

[50] An Abridged version was published in Benjamin Tucker’s Liberty February 17, 1883.

[51] Edited version in Mother Earth, June 1906.

[52] Alternative translation appeared in Mother Earth, September 1907

[53] According to his biographer Martin A. Miller, Kropotkin wrote 'frequent' letters to the London Times. (Kropotkin, p. 201)

[54] Included in a different translation in No Gods, No Masters and Revolutionary Pamphlets

[55] An edited version is included in Revolutionary Pamphlets as 'What to Do?'

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